Urologic Oncology is the field of medicine concerned with the research and treatment of cancers of the urinary system for both genders and those affecting the male sexual organs. Most often, these include cancers of the kidneys and bladder and the prostate and testes. Gynecologic oncologists see women’s cancers or cancers of the female reproductive systems.
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This is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow-growing. However, there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers. The cancer cells may metastasize (spread) from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. Prostate cancer may cause pain, difficulty in urinating, problems during sexual intercourse, or erectile dysfunction. Prostate cancer tends to develop in men over the age of fifty.
It is a type of cancer that starts in the cells in the kidney. The two most common types of kidney cancer are:
These names reflect the type of cell from which cancer developed. The different types of kidney cancer (such as RCC and UCC) develop differently, meaning that the diseases have different outlooks (or prognoses) and need to be staged and treated differently.
This includes any of the several types of malignancy arising from the epithelial lining (i.e., the urothelium) of the urinary bladder. Rarely is the bladder involved in non-epithelial cancers, such as lymphoma or sarcoma, but these are not ordinarily included in the colloquial term ‘bladder cancer.’ It is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in the bladder. The bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine and is located in the pelvis. The most common type of bladder cancer recapitulates the urothelium’s normal histology and is known as transitional cell carcinoma or, more properly, urothelial cell carcinoma.
You must consult an expert if any of the symptoms is seen
Inability to urinate
Lower back pain, especially on one side
Loss of appetite
Swelling in the feet (edema)
Blood in the urine (discolored urine that is pink, red, or brown-ish may be a sign of blood)
Continuous back pain just below the ribs
Fever (which may come and go)
Kidney cancer may also result in symptoms of fever, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and pain in the side that does not subside. Prostate cancer will affect the flow of urine; patients may experience difficulty starting or stopping urination and difficulty in achieving an erection. Testicular cancer often presents an enlargement or swelling of the testicle, pain in the scrotum, and/or pain in the groin, back, or lower abdomen.
Smoking, certain bacterial infections, and occupational chemical exposure are among the risk factors for bladder cancer. For kidney cancer, the risk factors include smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, and heavy metal exposure. The odds of developing prostate cancer are raised by age and family history. In contrast, testicular cancer risk factors include family history and congenital abnormalities or congenital disabilities of the testes, kidneys, and penis.
If your primary care doctor feels that you should see an expert, you will be referred to a urologist. The urologist will ask various questions about your health history and check your body with various tests. He or she will feel your belly, sides, and back for lumps and will order blood tests.
A microscopic exam of cells in the urine (cytology) can help find an upper urinary tract cancer. Sometimes normal urine from the other kidney can water down a sample, making cancerous cells hard to find. If your doctor suspects cancer or cannot find the source of blood in the urine, he or she may order imaging tests.
Ultrasound and CT (computerized tomography) scans are painless, nonsurgical ways to check the urinary tract. But while CT scans can show stones in the kidney and ureter, they are less useful in showing tumors. To see tumors more clearly, the doctor may use a contrast dye with the CT scan. To check whether cancer has spread to other organs, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may also be helpful. Adding a retrograde X-ray (X-ray using a special dye) may be needed if you have poor kidney function.
Factors that will shape your treatment plan include:
Dr. SandeepNunia will work with your referring doctor to decide the best mix of treatments, which may include:
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Psychologists and psychiatrists can help you create a plan for meeting the challenges of urologic cancer.
our diet and nutrition experts can craft a meal plan to help you regain strength or support your health.
Pain experts will work with your care team to relieve pain from urologic cancer treatment.
Our team’s goal is to improve the quality of life for people who are no longer responding to cancer treatments.
Social workers can help you manage the practical aspects of living with urologic cancer.
Interpreters can help global patients and others with language barriers discern the cancer treatment process.